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The main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3 , PlayStation 4 , PlayStation 5 , Xbox One , and Xbox Series X. The name “Blu-ray” refers to the blue laser which is actually a violet laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs.
The polycarbonate disc is millimetres 4. The BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association , a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, and motion pictures.
Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray Disc prototypes in October , and the first prototype player was released in Japan in April Afterward, it continued to be developed until its official worldwide release on June 20, , beginning the high-definition optical disc format war , where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format.
The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used. Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a denser storage format that could hold higher-definition media, with prototype discs made with diodes at a slightly longer wavelength of nanometers in October The core technologies of the formats are similar.
Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, and they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System CSS used on DVDs. In January , TDK announced that it had developed an ultra-hard yet very thin polymer coating ” Durabis ” for Blu-ray Discs; this was a significant technical advance because a far tougher protection was desired in the consumer market to protect bare discs against scratching and damage compared to DVD, while technically Blu-ray Disc required a much thinner layer for the denser and higher-frequency blue laser.
However, the final AACS standard was delayed,  and then delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. The DVD Forum , chaired by Toshiba , was split over whether to develop the more expensive blue laser technology. In March the forum approved a proposal, which was endorsed by Warner Bros.
The proposal involved compressing high-definition video onto dual-layer standard DVD-9 discs. Department of Justice. The first Blu-ray Disc player was perceived as expensive and buggy, and there were few titles available.
Following these new developments, on February 19, , Toshiba announced it would end production of HD DVD devices,  allowing Blu-ray Disc to become the industry standard for high-density optical discs. Universal Studios , the sole major studio to back HD DVD since its inception, said shortly after Toshiba’s announcement: “While Universal values the close partnership we have shared with Toshiba, it is time to turn our focus to releasing new and catalog titles on Blu-ray Disc.
Both studios announced initial Blu-ray lineups in May With this, all major Hollywood studios supported Blu-ray. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales.
Shortly after the “format war” ended, Blu-ray Disc sales began to increase. This conclusion was based on the fact that Singulus Technologies received orders for 21 Blu-ray dual-layer replication machines during the first quarter of , while 17 DVD replication machines of this type were made in the same period in Blu-ray faces competition from video on demand  and from new technologies that allow access to movies on any format or device, such as Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem or Disney’s Keychest.
Some are released on “flipper” discs with Blu-ray on one side and DVD on the other. Other strategies are to release movies with the special features only on Blu-ray Discs and none on DVDs. Blu-ray Discs cost no more to produce than DVD discs.
Ultra HD Blu-ray discs and players became available in the first quarter of , having a storage capacity of up to GB. Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has been finalized, engineers continue to work on advancing the technology.
By , quad-layer GB  discs had been demonstrated on a drive with modified optics  and standard unaltered optics. Behind closed doors at CES , Ritek revealed that it had successfully developed a high-definition optical disc process that extended the disc capacity to ten layers, increasing the capacity of the discs to GB. Its planned launch was in the —10 time frame for ROM and —13 for rewritable discs. Ongoing development was underway to create a 1 TB Blu-ray Disc.
Set-top box recorders were not being sold in the U. However, personal computers with Blu-ray recorder drives were available. The higher-capacity discs, according to Sony, would be readable on existing Blu-ray Disc players with a firmware upgrade. On July 20, , the research team of Sony and Japanese Tohoku University announced the joint development of a blue-violet laser,  to help create Blu-ray Discs with a capacity of 1 TB using only two layers and potentially more than 1 TB with additional layering.
By comparison, the first blue laser was invented in , with the first prototype discs coming four years later. New players were required to play this format, which were able to play both DVDs, traditional Blu-rays and the new format.
Blu-ray’s physical and file system specifications are publicly available on the Blu-ray Disc association’s website. Although the laser is called “blue”, its color is actually in the violet range. The shorter wavelength can be focused to a smaller area, thus enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are less than half the size of those on a DVD, and can consequently be spaced more closely, resulting in a shorter track pitch, enabling a Blu-ray Disc to hold about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD.
The lasers are GaN gallium nitride laser diodes that produce nm light directly, that is, without frequency doubling or other nonlinear optical mechanisms. The minimum ” spot size ” on which a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction and depends on the wavelength of the light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it.
By decreasing the wavelength, increasing the numerical aperture from 0. In addition to the optical improvements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding that further increase the amount of content that can be stored. Given that the Blu-ray Disc data layer is closer to the surface of the disc compared to the DVD standard, it was found in early designs to be more vulnerable to scratches.
Using a cartridge would increase the price of an already expensive medium, and would increase the size of Blu-ray Disc drives, so designers chose hard-coating of the pickup surface instead. TDK was the first company to develop a working scratch-protection coating for Blu-ray Discs, naming it Durabis.
In addition, both Sony’s and Panasonic’s replication methods include proprietary hard-coat technologies. Sony’s rewritable media are spin-coated, using a scratch-resistant acrylic and antistatic coating. The Blu-ray Disc specification requires the testing of resistance to scratches by mechanical abrasion.
The table shows the speeds available. BD discs are designed to cope with at least 5, rpm of rotational speed.
The usable data rate of a Blu-ray Disc drive can be limited by the capacity of the drive’s data interface. With a USB 2.
Internal Blu-ray drives that are integrated into a computer as opposed to physically separate and connected via a cable typically have a SATA interface. Not all vendors and models of optical drives have error scanning functionality implemented.
Pre-recorded Blu-ray Disc titles usually ship in packages similar to but slightly smaller The format was supposed to use the same codecs and program structure as Blu-ray Disc video but recorded onto less expensive 8. Usage of BD9 for releasing content on “pressed” discs never caught on. With the end of the format war, manufacturers ramped production of Blu-ray Discs and lowered prices to compete with DVDs.
On the other hand, the idea of using inexpensive DVD media became popular among individual users. A lower-capacity version of this format that uses single-layer 4.
Both formats are being used by individuals for recording high-definition content in Blu-ray format onto recordable DVD media. The BD-RE 1. The requirements related with computer file system have been specified in System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc Format part 2 File System Specifications version 1.
Audio, video, and other streams are multiplexed and stored on Blu-ray Discs in a container format based on the MPEG transport stream. That enables transport streams of digital broadcasts to be recorded as they are broadcast, without altering the format. Although it is quite natural, a function for high-speed and easy-to-use retrieval is built in. An MPEG transport stream contains one or more MPEG program streams, so this allows multiple video programs to be stored in the same file so they can be played back simultaneously e.
The BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardware decoders players and movie software content. For video, all players are required to process H.
Blu-ray Disc allows video with a bit depth of 8-bits per color YCbCr with chroma subsampling. Some studios, such as Warner Bros. A secondary audiotrack, if present, may use any of the mandatory or optional codecs. At the JavaOne trade show, it was announced that Sun Microsystems ‘ Java cross-platform software environment would be included in all Blu-ray Disc players as a mandatory part of the standard.
DVDs use pre-rendered MPEG segments and selectable subtitle pictures, which are considerably more primitive and rarely seamless. At the conference, Java creator James Gosling suggested that the inclusion of a Java virtual machine , as well as network connectivity in some BD devices, will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features not included on the disc at pressing time.
It can either be built-in memory or removable media, such as a memory card or USB flash memory. The first Blu-ray Disc album to be released was Divertimenti , by record label Lindberg Lyd, and it has been confirmed to work on the PS3.
BD-Live features have included Internet chats, scheduled chats with the director, Internet games, downloadable featurettes, downloadable quizzes, and downloadable movie trailers. Profile 1. Internet is required to use. As with the implementation of region codes for DVDs , Blu-ray Disc players sold in a specific geographical region are designed to play only discs authorized by the content provider for that region. This is intended to permit content providers motion picture studios, television production company etc.
According to the Blu-ray Disc Association, all Blu-ray Disc players and Blu-ray Disc-equipped computer systems are required to enforce regional coding. However, content providers need not use region playback codes. Movie distributors have different region coding policies.
Among major U. In circumvention of region coding restrictions, stand-alone Blu-ray Disc players are sometimes modified by third parties to allow for playback of Blu-ray Discs and DVDs with any region code. Unlike DVD region codes, Blu-ray region codes are verified only by the player software, not by the optical drive’s firmware.
The latest types of Blu-ray players, suitable for UltraHD content, are not region-free; however; the UHD discs for which they are designed have not been coded to be locked to any region, and will work worldwide.
The Blu-ray Disc format employs several layers of digital rights management DRM which restrict the usage of the discs. Blu-ray equipment is required to implement the High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection HDCP system to encrypt the data sent by players to rendering devices through physical connections.
This is aimed at preventing the copying of copyrighted content as it travels across cables. In order to ease the transition to high definition formats, the adoption of this protection method was postponed until Since the appearance of the format on devices in , several successful attacks have been made on it.