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In the first step of the Form wizard, we need to specify the fields from the Customer table that will appear on the form. In this case, we want all of the fields to appear. Move each of the fields from the Available Fields side over to the Selected Fields side as in the following figure.
Then click on the Next button. This is similar to a paper form. This layout is suitable for viewing data one record at a time. This is similar to how a spreadsheet would display the data and is suitable for displaying multiple records of data at a time.
This is suitable for viewing a single record at a time as with the columnar layout. For this example, choose the columnar layout as shown in the figure below and click on the Next button. Access will show several sample display styles that determine how the form will appear, including elements such as fonts, colors and the background used in the form.
Access and skips this step in this wizard and provides styles that can be applied to the form in Design mode. For this example, for MS Access , select the Office style as shown below and click on the Next button. To move to the next or previous record, use the record navigation bar at the bottom of the form: The buttons on the navigation bar perform the following functions: Go to the first record.
Go to the previous record. Go to the next record. Go to the last record. Go past the last record to add a new record. To close the form and return to the Access main screen, pull down the File menu and choose Close. To open the form at any time, highlight the form name under the Forms tab on the Access main screen and click on the Open button.
One quick final note on forms. When the form is created, MS Access looks at how the table is designed and creates the form based on the properties of the table.
If you make any changes to the table, you will need to re-create the form again in order to see those table changes reflected in the form. One example where this might happen is is if you change a column in your table from a text box to a combo box, or if you add or remove any columns from your table. Exercise: Creating a Single Table Form For this exercise, we will create a data entry form for the Accounts table created in a previous exercise.
Select the Accounts table and all of the available fields and click on the Next button. Choose a Tabular layout and click on the Next button. For Access choose the Office style and click on the Next button. Name the form: AccountsDataEntry Then click on the Finish button to create, save and view the new form.
Choose a table and a form wizard 2. Specify the fields columns that will appear in the form 3. Specify the layout for the form 4. Unlike queries, however, reports add formatting to the output including fonts, colors, backgrounds and other features.
Reports are often printed out on paper rather than just viewed on the screen. They can also be attached to e-mail and exported and posted as web pages.
In this section, we cover how to create simple reports using the Report wizard. Creating a Single Table Report using the Wizard In this example, we will create a simple report for a single table using the Report wizard. As with the Queries and Forms, we begin by selecting the Create tab from the Access main screen. To create a new report, click on the Report Wizard button. In the next step of the Report wizard, is used to specify the fields from the Customer table that will appear on the report.
A grouping level is where several records have the same value for a given field and we only display the value for the first records. In this case, we will not use any grouping levels so simply click on the Next button as shown below. In the next step, the sorting order of the report can be specified. For this example, we will sort the records on the CustomerID field. To achieve this, pull down the list box next to the number 1: and choose the CustomerID field as shown in the figure below.
This is similar to how a spreadsheet would display the data. Generally, reports use the tabular layout. For this example, choose Tabular layout and set the page Orientation to Landscape so that all of the fields will fit across one page.
This is shown in the figure below. Click on the Next button to continue. For this example, choose the Office style and click on the Next button to continue. Finally, give a name for the new report: CustomerReport and then click on the Finish button to create, save and display the new report. Note that on some screens, the last field, Zip, may not display without scrolling over to the right. Once the report is displayed, it can be viewed, printed or transferred into Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel.
Exercise: Creating a Single Table Report For this exercise, we will create a report showing all of the Accounts information.
From the Access main screen, click on the Create tab and Click on the Report wizard. Select all of the fields in the Accounts table by moving them all over to the Selected Fields side and then click Next 3. This is shown in the following figure: Click on the Next button to continue. Choose to sort the report on the AccountNumber field.
Note that a new button will appear called Summary Options. Choose the Balance field and select the Sum option. Choose the option to show both Detail and Summary data. Then click on the OK button. Click on the Next button. Choose a Block layout and click on the Next button.
Choose the Corporate style and the click on the Next button. Finally, name the report: AccountsReport and click on the Finish button to create, save and run the report. To close the report and return to the Access main screen, pull down the File menu and choose Close. Review of Creating and Running a Report As can be seen in the report exercise, there are many ways to create reports to show summation, sorting and layout of the data.
Further study of Reports will show how to modify the layout using the Design View. Students are encouraged to work with the Report wizards to create different styles and types of reports. The forms are linked according to the relationship between the tables. Click the Next… button to move to the next step.
At this point MS Access detects that this form will involve data from two different tables. The second prompt asks how the forms should be created. The Subform is the form that will display the detailed data from the Accounts table. For Access , select the Office style and click the Next… button to move to the next step.
This step will not appear in MS Access or A switchboard is typically created after all of the forms and reports for a database application have been completed. It can be used to guide the user to an appropriate set of forms and reports. Note that starting with Access , Switchboards are not available by default you will need to add this to the ribbon bar manually using the Options. Access and make use of the Navigation Forms.
In this section, a default switchboard will be created. From the Access main screen, click on the Database Tools tab and Click on the Switchboard Manager as shown in the figure below. If this is the first switchboard made for this database, you will be prompted to create a new one as shown below. Click the Yes button. The Edit Switchboard Page will appear as shown below: 4. Add a new switchboard item by clicking on the New… button.
The Edit Switchboard Item form will appear as shown below. Click on the OK button to save this new Switchboard item. Repeat the above step two more times to add Switchboard items for the Accounts DataEntry form and the Customer Report.
Once completed, click the Close button. Then click the Close button once more to close the Switchboard manager. From the main MS Access screen look for a new section labeled Switchboard items. Navigation forms take the place of Switchboards but provide much the same functionality. Namely, they are designed to give the user the ability to run forms and reports without having to hunt through all of the different menus and lists objects.
Typically a database application will have one main Navigation form that will appear when the database is opened. In this section, the basic steps for creating and running a Navigation Form in MS Access will be demonstrated. To get started, click on the Create tab on the Access or ribbon bar. Under the section for Forms look for the item labeled Navigation Form. Note that this may be located on the button labeled Other Forms. Note that there are 6 different default styles of Navigation Forms.
Each one places the buttons in a different configuration on the screem. Buttons can be aligned across the top, either side or some combination. For this tutorial select the Horizontal Tabs configuration which appears as the first item on the list. At this point a new Navigation Form will be created with a row of tabs across the top.
The first tab will be labeled [Add New] 4. To add items to the Navigation form, drag the items from the list on the left over to the spot on the Navigation Form labeled [Add New]. This is shown by the arrow in the above figure. The result is shown below. Next drag and drop the CustomerMasterForm as shown below. Next drag and drop the CustomerReport as shown below. At this point we have created a new navigation Form and added three items along the top of the page. Save the Navigation Form by right-clicking on the name of the form and choosing Save as shown below: 8.
Close up the Navigation Form by right-clicking again on the name of the form and choosing Close menu item. At this point the new Navigation Form has been created and saved. The next step will be to view the Navigation Form and navigate the different forms and reports linked to it. To view the Navigation Form, look for the Unrelated Objects group on the left side of the screen. This is especially useful for end users so that they always see the same form when they open up the database.
To set the Default Form, pull down the File menu and select the Options menu item. Click on the Current Database item on the left hand side. The next time this database bankdb. So as much as possible we want to try and suggest good data to be put into the tables and to reject any obviously bad data.
Once bad data makes its way into the database it is often difficult to correct. Records that are missing data are also a problem. So again it will always help the user any time we can provide a default value or provide good suggestions of what data to put in. Below are some additional properties that can be customized to provide better data input quality.
In general these techniques should be used at the time tables are created. MS Access will use these properties when creating data entry forms and reports. When adding a new data record it is helpful to supply as many default values as is reasonable so the user does not have to type in as much data.
To set a default value, highlight the name of a column field in the table Design View and then set the Default Valueproperty accordingly. In the example below the Default value for Balance has been set to 0: Also consider putting the Required property into play to ensure the user will put something in the field. In the above example the Required property is set to No. Setting this to Yes will force the user to enter data.
Validation Rules put limits around the values that are allowed to be stored in a column field. Rules can be set up compare the data a user enters and then either accept or reject that value. In case the data is rejected by the rule, a message from the Validation Text property will be displayed. In this example, the Balance column field will be validated to make sure it can never be a negative number.
Rather than have the user type in these values, we can change the default text box display of a field to a Combo Box. A Combo Box looks like a text box but it has a small arrow on the right hand side. Clicking on the arrow presents a list of possible values. For this example we will modify the Customer table and provide a Combo Box with a list of suggested values for the State column field.
Change the Row Source property to: Value List. This setting allows us to type in a list of suggested values separated by semicolons. Type in the value list in the Row Source property.
Leave the rest of the properties as the default values. Make sure the Limit to list property is set to No. This way if a Customer comes in from another state not on the list, the user can type it in.
At this point the properties look like: 7. Save the current table design and then close up the Design View. In some cases the values that can be supplied for a field can come from another table or some external data source. So rather than typing in a static list of possible values, the Row Source property can be set to a Query. A common situation occurs when we need to supply the value for a foreign key. The CustomerID column is the key of the Customer table.
When it appears in the Accounts table, the CustomerID column is a foreign key. When supplying a value for the CustomerID column in the Accounts table, we are restricted to using only existing CustomerID values that exist already in the Customer table.
Close any open tables or forms and open the Accounts table in Design View. For the Row Source property pull down the list and select the Customer table. Change the Bound Column property to 1 7.
Change the Column Count property to 3The above three property changes tell Access to do the following: When the user clicks on the Combo Box, query the Customers table. Change the Column Widths property to 0. Change the Limit to List property to Yes.
We many only use CustomerIDs that exist in the Customer table. At this point the properties for the CustomerID column in the Accounts table will look like the following: Save the design of the Accounts table and close it. Note that the Row Source property can be set to any existing table, query or even a SQL statement discussed later on. Columns designated as Keys are a special case. Because of their function as a unique identifier, each value of key needs to be unique.
For small databases we may be able to count on the user typing in a new unique number or text string for the key column each time a new record is created. However for larger databases and especially in cases where the database is shared among many users, we need a way to guarantee unique key values are generated for each new record. MS Access provides a facility to deliver unique values by using the AutoNumber data type. Specifying a column field data type as AutoNumber will accomplish the following things: 1.
The data type will be an integer number. The first data record entered will be given number 1 and each new record afterwards will automatically be given the next number in sequence. The user will not be able to click inside the AutoNumber field or change its values. Unfortunately once a table has been created and data added, a field can not easily be changed from a Number or Text to AutoNumber.
So for this next exercise, we will create a new table for the Bank database and will make use of the AutoNumber data type. The Bank would now like to keep track of each transaction that occurs in an account. For example, money can be deposited or withdrawn from the account. The bank will need to track the AccountNumber, the TransactionType, the TransactionAmount and the date and time of the transaction. Start by closing up all of the existing tables.
Click on the Create tab on the ribbon bar and then click on the Table icon. Right-click on the new table that has been created and select Design View. Save the new Transactions table and close the table Design View. Open up the Relationship Tools screen from the Database Tools tab on the ribbon bar. Add the Transactions table to the Relationships design. Create a relationship from the AccountNumber column in the Accounts table to the AccountNumber column in the Transactions table.
The relationship should be One to Many and enforce referential integrity: 9. Save and close up the Relationship tools.
We will make use of this data in the next part of the advanced Access tutorial. Make the default value for DateOpened column in Accounts table equal to the current date. So as much as possible we want to try and suggest good data to be put into the form fields, provide default values wherever possible, and apply some common-sense checks to make sure bad data is not entered.
Before we get into these details, we will start with a more complete overview of data entry forms. We develop applications forms, reports, menus, etc.
An individual form focuses the attention of the user to one or a few of the tables at a time. In addition, a form can give prompts so the user knows what kind of input is expected and how data is to be entered and manipulated. By default, every form in Access has the capability to query existing data in a table, modify existing data and add new data records to the table.
Fields within a form correspond to columns in the database tables. There are four main types of forms that can be designed. Single Table Form. This form design contains a single Single Table Form with lookup field. This form design form corresponding to a single database table. This is contains a single form corresponding to a single the most basic type of form. First we will dig a bit deeper into the forms designer and the properties of forms.
While it is possible to create a form from scratch just by using the Design View, usually we can get a good start on a form by running through the Form Wizard. Then we can customize the form by playing around with the form properties in Design View. For this exercise, we will create a data entry form for the Accounts table. For Access only choose the Office style and click on the Next button. Note that if you had already created this form during the prior tutorial, you will be asked to over-write the form with this new one.
The Account Type field was then modified in the exercises to show a list of account types. Other table features that are also inherited from table design include the size of the text boxes related to the size of the columns , default values and column validation rules.
Form Themes in Microsoft Access and Forms and reports can be customized with a wide range of themes. A Theme consists of a set of background and foreground colors and fonts that are applied to the forms. MS Access and earlier versions had a small selection of themes that could be selected during the Form Wizard. Access and later versions create the form first and then apply themes later on.
To change the theme of the current form, click on the Home tab on the ribbon bar, then click on the View menu and finally Design View. Add buttons, fields, labels and other objects to the form. The Design tab is shown below: To change the theme of the form, click on the Design tab on the ribbon bar and pull down the Theme menu. In a similar fashion the color scheme of the form can be changed using the Colors menu and the font used for the labels and text boxes can be set using the fonts menu.
Each label, text box, combo box and other object on a form also have their own set of properties. To view the Form level properties, right-click on the form in Design View and select Properties from the pop-up menu. If the Selection Type does not say Form then pull down the list below and select Form from the list.
Access has already set all of these properties when the form was created by the Forms Wizard. So by default there may not be a reason at this point to change any of the properties. However in later steps we may come back to this property page to make some changes. For now, a few of the more important and useful properties to be aware of are: Property Description Record Source The source of data for the form.
This source can be a query but most of the time it will be a table. Recordset The type of Recordset object created from the record source.
In virtually all cases this Type should be set to Dynaset since a Dynaset maintains consistency with the underlying table. A snapshot just shows the data at the time the form is opened so no data changes are reflected until the form is re-opened or refreshed. Fetch Defaults Yes indicates default values set in the underlying table will be populated in the fields when a new record is created.
Filter Sets any filtering criteria for when the form is opened. By default no filters are applied but can be added by the user once the form is displayed. Filter on load If a filter is set, Yes indicates the filter will be applied as the form is loading. Order By Specifies the order of the records as they are displayed in the form. Data Entry Yes indicates the form can only be used to add new data records. No is the default. Allow Yes indicates this form can be used to add new records.
Additions Allow Yes indicates this form can be used to delete existing records. Deletions Allow Edits Yes indicates this form can be used to edit existing records.
Allow Filters Yes indicates users can add filters to diplsay a subset of the records in the form. Record Locks Indicates how data should be locked when multiple users are working on the same data.
Locks are used to prevent two users from overwriting the same data. This is the default but may not be reasonable if you plan to share this data with multiple users. All Records indicates all records in the table are locked when a user edits one record. Edited Record indicates only the current record being edited will be locked.
The Format properties tab for a form controls the appearance of the form including scrollbars, headings, default layout of fields, etc.
Some handy properties include: Property Description Caption Form Caption — this is the name that appears on the top tab when the form is open. Default View Default view when form is opened. View Allow Yes indicates the form can be shown as a data sheet. We will revisit Events in a later tutorial. In later tutorials we will revisit these form-level properties to customize how the form behaves.
The Data tab for CustomerID properties is shown below: As with the form-level properties, Access sets the default properties for each field during the Forms Wizard process to create a new form. Most of these properties can and probably should be left with their default values. However a few properties will be modified to change the behavior of the fields. Property Description Control Source The source of data for the field.
The choices here are limited to the columns available in the table or query specified in the form-level Record Source property.
Row Source Properties that control the source of values for the Combo Box. Note that this set of properties were set by the table design properties introduced Bound Column in the Advanced Database Table Design tutorial Input Mask Set a template for data to be input.
For example, a mask for a U. Default Value Specifies a default value for new records. This can also be set in the table level properties. Validation Sets a validation rule for data entered by the user. For example, this can be used to limit Rule and the range of values for a particular field.
Note that these are similar to the properties that Validation are set by the table design properties introduced in the Advanced Database Table Design Text tutorial Enabled Yes indicates the field is available in form view. Locked Yes indicates the data in the field is locked and can not be change. Auto Expand Yes indicates a value will be pre-filled if the first few letters are typed in.
In some cases, we may also wish to display some data from a different table — one that is not the main table the form is based on. In our bank database example, One Customer can have Many accounts. When Accounts is the table used for the form, and we want to show some Customer data that matches the account, we follow the CustomerID relationship from the Accounts table back to the Customer table and use this relationship to bring in the additional data to the form. To help make this connect we will use a function to look up the CustomerID in the Customer table.
Access supports a large number of functions that can carry out different operations including various math, accounting and finance calculations, date and time data manipulation, text formatting, data type conversion and database manipulation. For this example we will specifically use the DLookUp function that is designed to find a specific record in a data table based on a search criteria.
Pull down the Design ribbon bar and click on the Text Box icon: 2. You may need to increase the width of the form to get this to fit just drag the edge of the form to make it wider on the screen.
Bring up the Properties for this new Text box. Here we are making up a new name for this text box that is different than the names of the columns in the Customer table for clarity. The next step is to create a source for each text box.
Click on the Control Source property and then click on the small button with three dots on it to bring up the Expression Builder.
The Expression Builder is a special form that provides a way to write different expressions and functions. Note that all of the elements of the database tables, forms, queries, fields, etc. Click on the OK button to close up the Expression Builder. Repeat the above 4 steps for the CLastName field. As a final step, consider changing the Enabled property on the CFirstName and CLastName fields to No so that users can not click in those fields or try to change their values.
Save the form and then switch form Design View to Form View. Note that for each Accounts record on the form, the appropriate Customer first name and last name will appear in the fields next to CustomerID. There are two main ways to set up a check box control with an Access form: 1. Bind the check box directly to a column field in the underlying table. Set up the check box as an unboud control on the form and then use macros or VBA code to set the appropriate values in the underlying table.
When bound to a table, check boxes must bind to a field with a special data type. So the first step is to add such a column field to the Accounts table. Make sure all other forms and tables are closed, then open up the Accounts table in Design View.
All of the other properties can be left at the default values as shown below: 3. Becuase this form was created before we added the new AccountClosed field, we will need to add it to the form. If, after adding the new column to the table, you create a new form based on the Accounts table, Access will add it automatically.
The rest of these instructions assume we will be adding this new field to the existing AccountsDataEntry form.
Note the check box is set up and ready to use. There are two main ways to set up an option button with an Access form: 1. Bind the option buttons directly to a column field in the underlying table. Set up the option buttons as unbound controls on the form and then use macros or VBA code to set the appropriate values in the underlying table. For this example, the first step is to add such a column field to the Accounts table. If you already did this while working with the Check Box example, you can skip this next step.
Because this form was created before we added the new AccountClosed field, we will need to add it to the form. With the AccountsDataEntry form opened in Design View, click on the Design item in the ribbon bar and scroll thorugh the controls list until you find the Option Group control. Click on the Option Group control and then draw the option group on the form. The Option Group Wizard takes care of setting up the Option Group and binding it to a column field in a table.
The first step in the Option Group Wizard is to assign labels to each option. For this example assign the following to the labels: Account Open and Account Closed as shown below. For this example we are binding the option group to an underlying table column and so the default choice should come from that field. For new records, the default choice should be put in place. These values must be an integer. Once the user select an option and the value from the prior step is assigned, Access can either hold on to the value or pass it along to a specific column field in the table.
The next step is to customize the content and appearance of the Option Group. For this example, we are sticking with the defaults of Option Buttons with the Etched style. This Caption will appear above the option group. Once the Option Group Wizard is completed, the new object will appear on the form.
Once in place it can be re-sized and moved. The properties such as Option Value can also be changed. Save the form and switch to Form View to test the Option Group functionality. Adding Option Buttons as Unbound Controls In many cases a table column field will take one of two or three values and we may want to use Option Buttons as the user interface control to set those values.
If the values are integers, then we can bind the Option Group directly to the table column. However if the values are not integers, then we will need to use an unbound option group with some macro code or VBA code to actually set the right values in the fields that are bound to the data tables. The Option Group Wizard takes care of setting up the Option Group and assigning internal values to the various options within the group.
For this example, the default values will be set from the underlying table so there is no need to set a default. These values must be integers. For this example we will make Checking have a value of 1, Savings will have a vaue of 2 and Money marketwill have a value of 3.
Once the user selects an option in the Option Group and the value from the prior step is assigned, Access can either hold on to the value or pass it along to a specific column field in the table.
In this case we will not be binding these values directly to the table. Instead we will use some VBA code shown below to do this work. Select the option Save the value for later use. For this example type in: Account Type and click on the Finish button to complete the wizard: Once in place it can be resized and moved. We will refer to this control name in the steps below. The options group will not do anything useful however since there is no programming or logic to connect the options group to the Accounts table.
To do this some Visual Basic for Applications VBA code will need to be added in two places in order to synchronize the data in the Accounts table and the Options Group. The first step is to make the value of the AccountType field change when a different option is selected on the AccountTypeFrame.
Since the AccountType field is bound to the table, and changes made will be saved in the database. The two important parts of an event are the event type and what control on the form triggered the event. For example, there are events the relate to the entire form and other events that relate only to specific controls on the form.
For this part of the tutorial there are two events we are concerned about: Navigating to a new record causes the form-level event called On Current to be triggered.
We will use this event to change the Options Group selection to match the data in the table. Selecting a different option in the Option Group causes an After Update event to be triggered. We will use this event to change the value of the AccountType field.
Click on the Events tab and find the After Update event. Click on the small button with three dots on it: 4. The Choose Builder dialog box will appear next. It also has the ability to link to data in its existing location and use it for viewing, querying, editing, and reporting. This allows the existing data to change while ensuring that Access uses the latest data.
It can perform heterogeneous joins between data sets stored across different platforms. Access is often used by people downloading data from enterprise level databases for manipulation, analysis, and reporting locally.
This makes it very convenient to distribute the entire application to another user, who can run it in disconnected environments. One of the benefits of Access from a programmer’s perspective is its relative compatibility with SQL structured query language —queries can be viewed graphically or edited as SQL statements, and SQL statements can be used directly in Macros and VBA Modules to manipulate Access tables.
Users can mix and use both VBA and “Macros” for programming forms and logic and offers object-oriented possibilities. VBA can also be included in queries. Microsoft Access offers parameterized queries. These queries and Access tables can be referenced from other programs like VB6 and.
Microsoft Access is a file server -based database. Unlike client—server relational database management systems RDBMS , Microsoft Access does not implement database triggers , stored procedures , or transaction logging. Access includes table-level triggers and stored procedures built into the ACE data engine. Thus a Client-server database system is not a requirement for using stored procedures or table triggers with Access Tables, queries, forms, reports and macros can now be developed specifically for web based applications in Access Integration with Microsoft SharePoint is also highly improved.
The edition of Microsoft Access introduced a mostly flat design and the ability to install apps from the Office Store, but it did not introduce new features.
The theme was partially updated again for , but no dark theme was created for Access. NET web forms can query a Microsoft Access database, retrieve records and display them on the browser.
SharePoint Server via Access Services allows for Access databases to be published to SharePoint, thus enabling multiple users to interact with the database application from any standards-compliant Web browser. Access Web databases published to SharePoint Server can use standard objects such as tables, queries, forms, macros, and reports. Access Services stores those objects in SharePoint.
Access offers the ability to publish Access web solutions on SharePoint The macro language is enhanced to support more sophisticated programming logic and database level automation. Microsoft Access can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Microsoft offers free runtime versions of Microsoft Access which allow users to run an Access desktop application without needing to purchase or install a retail version of Microsoft Access.
This actually allows Access developers to create databases that can be freely distributed to an unlimited number of end-users. These runtime versions of Access and later can be downloaded for free from Microsoft.
The runtime version allows users to view, edit and delete data, along with running queries, forms, reports, macros and VBA module code. The runtime version does not allow users to change the design of Microsoft Access tables, queries, forms, reports, macros or module code.
The runtime versions are similar to their corresponding full version of Access and usually compatible with earlier versions; for example Access Runtime allows a user to run an Access application made with the version as well as through Due to deprecated features in Access , its runtime version is also unable to support those older features.
Access stores all database tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules in the Access Jet database as a single file. For query development, Access offers a “Query Designer”, a graphical user interface that allows users to build queries without knowledge of structured query language.
In the Query Designer, users can “show” the datasources of the query which can be tables or queries and select the fields they want returned by clicking and dragging them into the grid. One can set up joins by clicking and dragging fields in tables to fields in other tables. Access allows users to view and manipulate the SQL code if desired. Any Access table, including linked tables from different data sources, can be used in a query. Access also supports the creation of “pass-through queries”.
This enables users to interact with data stored outside the Access program without using linked tables or Jet. When developing reports in “Design View” additions or changes to controls cause any linked queries to execute in the background and the designer is forced to wait for records to be returned before being able to make another change. This feature cannot be turned off. Non-programmers can use the macro feature to automate simple tasks through a series of drop-down selections.
Macros allow users to easily chain commands together such as running queries, importing or exporting data, opening and closing forms, previewing and printing reports, etc. Macros support basic logic IF-conditions and the ability to call other macros. Macros can also contain sub-macros which are similar to subroutines.
In Access , enhanced macros included error-handling and support for temporary variables. Access also introduced embedded macros that are essentially properties of an object’s event. This eliminated the need to store macros as individual objects.
However, macros were limited in their functionality by a lack of programming loops and advanced coding logic until Access With significant further enhancements introduced in Access , the capabilities of macros became fully comparable to VBA. They made feature rich web-based application deployments practical, via a greatly enhanced Microsoft SharePoint interface and tools, as well as on traditional Windows desktops.
It is similar to Visual Basic 6. To create a richer, more efficient and maintainable finished product with good error handling, most professional Access applications are developed using the VBA programming language rather than macros, except where web deployment is a business requirement.
In the database container or navigation pane in Access and later versions, the system automatically categorizes each object by type e. Many Access developers use the Leszynski naming convention , though this is not universal; it is a programming convention, not a DBMS-enforced rule. Developers deploy Microsoft Access most often for individual and workgroup projects the Access 97 speed characterization was done for 32 users.
Databases under 1 GB in size which can now fit entirely in RAM and simultaneous users are well within the capabilities of Microsoft Access. Disk-intensive work such as complex searching and querying take the most time. As data from a Microsoft Access database can be cached in RAM, processing speed may substantially improve when there is only a single user or if the data is not changing.
In the past, the effect of packet latency on the record-locking system caused Access databases to run slowly on a virtual private network VPN or a wide area network WAN against a Jet database. As of , [update] broadband connections have mitigated this issue. Performance can also be enhanced if a continuous connection is maintained to the back-end database throughout the session rather than opening and closing it for each table access. In July , Microsoft acknowledged an intermittent query performance problem with all versions of Access and Windows 7 and Windows Server R2 due to the nature of resource management being vastly different in newer operating systems.
In earlier versions of Microsoft Access, the ability to distribute applications required the purchase of the Developer Toolkit; in Access , and Access the “Runtime Only” version is offered as a free download,  making the distribution of royalty-free applications possible on Windows XP, Vista, 7 and Windows 8.
Microsoft Access applications can adopt a split-database architecture. The single database can be divided into a separate “back-end” file that contains the data tables shared on a file server and a “front-end” containing the application’s objects such as queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules.
The “front-end” Access application is distributed to each user’s desktop and linked to the shared database. Using this approach, each user has a copy of Microsoft Access or the runtime version installed on their machine along with their application database.
This reduces network traffic since the application is not retrieved for each use. The “front-end” database can still contain local tables for storing a user’s settings or temporary data. This split-database design also allows development of the application independent of the data. One disadvantage is that users may make various changes to their own local copy of the application and this makes it hard to manage version control.
When a new version is ready, the front-end database is replaced without impacting the data database. Microsoft Access has two built-in utilities, Database Splitter  and Linked Table Manager, to facilitate this architecture. Linked tables in Access use absolute paths rather than relative paths, so the development environment either has to have the same path as the production environment or a “dynamic-linker” routine can be written in VBA. For very large Access databases, this may have performance issues and a SQL backend should be considered in these circumstances.
To scale Access applications to enterprise or web solutions, one possible technique involves migrating to Microsoft SQL Server or equivalent server database. A client—server design significantly reduces maintenance and increases security, availability, stability, and transaction logging. This feature was removed from Access A variety of upgrading options are available.
The corresponding SQL Server data type is binary, with only two states, permissible values, zero and 1. Regardless, SQL Server is still the easiest migration. Retrieving data from linked tables is optimized to just the records needed, but this scenario may operate less efficiently than what would otherwise be optimal for SQL Server. For example, in instances where multi-table joins still require copying the whole table across the network.
The views and stored procedures can significantly reduce the network traffic for multi-table joins. Finally, some Access databases are completely replaced by another technology such as ASP. NET or Java once the data is converted. Further, Access application procedures, whether VBA and macros, are written at a relatively higher level versus the currently available alternatives that are both robust and comprehensive.
Note that the Access macro language, allowing an even higher level of abstraction than VBA, was significantly enhanced in Access and again in Access In many cases, developers build direct web-to-data interfaces using ASP.
NET, while keeping major business automation processes, administrative and reporting functions that don’t need to be distributed to everyone in Access for information workers to maintain.
Microsoft Access applications can be made secure by various methods, the most basic being password access control; this is a relatively weak form of protection. A higher level of protection is the use of workgroup security requiring a user name and password. Users and groups can be specified along with their rights at the object type or individual object level. This can be used to specify people with read-only or data entry rights but may be challenging to specify.
A separate workgroup security file contains the settings which can be used to manage multiple databases. Databases can also be encrypted. MDE file. Some tools are available for unlocking and ” decompiling “, although certain elements including original VBA comments and formatting are normally irretrievable.
Microsoft Access saves information under the following file formats :. There are no Access versions between 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Database manager part of the Microsoft Office package. Microsoft Office Access running on Windows Office Beta Channel See also: Web form. Main article: Upsizing database. The Verge. Retrieved October 5, PC Mag.
Ziff Davis, Inc. Retrieved May 23, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved January 2, November 14, September 4, July 31, October 16, November 20, November 4, July 13, July 20, The Old New Thing.
April 13, Retrieved May 20, Retrieved June 13, July 22, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved September 4,
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You can import data into Excel from a wide variety of data sources and the sections that follow show you how. For more information on what to do with your data once it’s imported, see How data journeys through Excel.
You can create a query from an Excel table, named range, or dynamic array in the current workbook. Importing dynamic arrays requires a Microsoft subscription.
For more information on dynamic arrays, see Dynamic array formulas and spilled array behavior. If prompted, in the Create Table dialog box, you can select the Range Selection button to select a specific range to use as a data source.
If the table or range of data has column headers, select My table has headers. The header cells are used to define the column names for the query. For more information, see Import from an Excel Table. In the Excel Browse dialog box, browse for or type a path to the file that you want to query.
For more information about advanced connector options, see Excel Workbook. The following procedure shows the basic steps. For more detailed coverage, see Import or export text. In the Comma-Separated Values Browse dialog box, browse for or type a path to the file that you want to query.
Note: If you are importing data from a CSV file, Power Query will automatically detect column delimiters including column names and types. For example, if you imported the example CSV file below, Power Query automatically uses the first row as the column names and changes each column data type.
The following procedure shows the basic steps of importing data. For more detailed coverage, see Import XML data. After the connection succeeds, use the Navigator pane to browse and preview the collections of items in the XML file in a tabular form. For more information about advanced connector options, see XML. The Import Data dialog box appears. For more information about advanced connector options, see JSON.
NET Framework 4. You can download the latest. NET Framework from here. Select your PDF file, and then click Open. The Navigator dialog box opens your PDF and displays available tables. For more information about advanced connector options, see PDF. You can import data from several files having a similar schema and format from a folder.
Then, you can append the data into one table. In the Browse dialog box, locate the folder, and then select Open. For detailed steps, see Import data from a folder with multiple files. For more information about advanced connector options, see Folder. You can import data from several files having a similar schema and format from a SharePoint library. In the SharePoint Folder dialog box, enter the root URL for the SharePoint site not including any reference to a library, and then navigate to the library.
For more information about advanced connector options, see SharePoint folder. Optionally, you can specify a Database Name as well. If you want to import data using a native database query, specify your query in the SQL Statement box. Windows This is the default selection.
Select this if you want to connect using Windows authentication. After you select this, specify a user name and password to connect to your SQL Server instance. By default, the Encrypt connection check box is selected to signify that Power Query connects to your database using an encrypted connection. If you do not want to connect using an encrypted connection, clear this check box, and then click Connect. If a connection to your SQL Server is not established using an encrypted connection, Power Query prompts you to connect using an unencrypted connection.
Click OK in the message to connect using an unencrypted connection. For more information about advanced connector options, see SQL Server database. In the Import Data dialog box, browse for and locate the Access database file.
Select the file, and then select Open. The Navigator dialog box appears. If you have many tables and queries, use the Search box to locate an object or use the Display Options along with the Refresh button to filter the list. For more information about advanced connector options, see Access database. Note When you use a workbook connected to a SQL Server Analysis Services database, you may need additional information to answer specific product questions, such as reference information about multidimensional expressions MDX , or configuration procedures for an online analytical processing OLAP server.
The first page of the Data Connection Wizard appears. Its title is Connect to Database Server. Tip: If you know the name of the offline cube file that you want to connect to, you can type the complete file path, file name, and extension. Under Log on credentials , do one of the following, then click Next :. To use your current Windows user name and password, click Use Windows Authentication.
To enter a database user name and password, click Use the following User Name and Password , and then type your user name and password in the corresponding User Name and Password boxes. Use strong passwords that combine uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Weak passwords don’t mix these elements. For example, Y6dh! Passwords should contain 8 or more characters.
A pass phrase that uses 14 or more characters is better. It is critical that you remember your password. If you forget your password, Microsoft cannot retrieve it. Store the passwords that you write down in a secure place away from the information that they help protect.
Select Next to go to the second wizard screen. Its title is Select Database and Table. To connect to a specific cube file in the database, make sure that Connect to a specific cube or table is selected, and then select a cube from the list. In the Select the database that contains the data you want box, select a database, and then click Next.
Click Next to go to the third wizard screen. Click Browse to change the default file location of My Data Sources , or check for existing file names. In the Description , Friendly Name , and Search Keywords boxes, type a description of the file, a friendly name, and common search words all are optional. To ensure that the connection file is used when the PivotTable is refreshed, click Always attempt to use this file to refresh this data.
Selecting this check box ensures that updates to the connection file will always be used by all workbooks that use that connection file. You can specify how a PivotTable is accessed if the workbook is saved to Excel Services and is opened by using Excel Services. If you want to ensure that the same data is accessed whether you open the workbook in Excel or Excel Services, make sure that the authentication setting in Excel is the same.
Select Authentication Settings , and select one of the following options to log on to the data source:. Windows Authentication Select this option to use the Windows username and password of the current user.
This is the most secure method, but it can affect performance when there are many users. A site administrator can configure a SharePoint site to use a Single Sign On database where a username and password can be stored.
This method can be the most efficient when there are many users. None Select this option to save the username and password in the connection file. Important: Avoid saving logon information when connecting to data sources.
This information may be stored as plain text, and a malicious user could access the information to compromise the security of the data source. Select Finish to close the Data Connection Wizard. Decide how you want to import the data, and then select OK.
For more information about using this dialog box, select the question mark? You can connect to a specific offline cube file if it has been created on the database server.
You can also import data into Excel as either a Table or a PivotTable report. In the Navigator pane select the database, and then select the cube or tables you want to connect. Click Load to load the selected table into a worksheet, or click Edit to perform additional data filters and transformations in the Power Query Editor before loading it. Note: Before you can connect to an Oracle database using Power Query , you need the Oracle client software v8.
If you want to import data using native database query, specify your query in the SQL Statement box. For more information, see Import data from database using Native Database Query. For more information about advanced connector options, see Oracle Database. Select the driver that matches your Power Query installation bit or bit. For more information, see Import data from a database using Native Database Query. For more information about advanced connector options, see MySQL database.